An Introduction To Python
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An Introduction To Python
Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has efficient high-level data structures and a simple but effective approach to object-oriented programming. Python’s elegant syntax and dynamic typing, together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms. The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are freely available in source or binary form for all major platforms from the Python Web site, http://www.python.org/, and can be freely distributed. The same site also contains distributions of and pointers to many free third party Python modules, programs and tools, and additional documentation. The Python interpreter is easily extended with new functions and data types implemented in C or C++ (or other languages callable from C). Python is also suitable as an extension language for customizable applications. This tutorial introduces the reader informally to the basic concepts and features of the Python language and system. It helps to have a Python interpreter handy for hands-on experience, but all examples are self-contained.
So the tutorial can be read off-line as well for getting that tutorial please
For a description#enrol20 of standard objects and modules, see the Python Library Reference document. The Python Reference Manual gives a more formal definition of the language. To write extensions in C or C++, read Extending and Embedding the Python Interpreter and the Python/C API Reference. There are also several books covering Python in depth. This tutorial does not attempt to be comprehensive and cover every single feature, or even every commonly used feature. Instead, it introduces many of Python’s most noteworthy features, and will give you a good idea of the language’s flavor and style. After reading it, you will be able to read and write Python modules and programs, and you will be ready to learn more about the various Python library modules described in the Python Library Reference.
Origin of python
When we are talking about the origin of Python, we cannot miss the name of ABC programming language. Because it was ABC language who influence that led to the design and development of a programming language called Python.In the early 80s, Van Rossum used to work at CWI(Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica) as an implementer of the programming language called ABC. Later at CWI in the late 1980s, while working on a new distributed operating system called AMOEBA, Van Rossum started looking for a scripting language with a syntax like ABC but with the access to the Amoeba system calls. So Van Rossum himself started designing a new simple scripting language that could overcome the flaws of ABC.
Van Rossum started developing the new script in the late 1980s and finally introduced the first version of that programming language in 1991. This initial release has module system of Modula-3. Later on, this programming language was named ‘Python’.Back in the 1970s, there was a popular BBC comedy tv show called Monty Python’s Fly Circus and Van Rossum happened to be the big fan of that show. So when Python was developed, Rossum named the project ‘Python’.Here is the brief chart depicting the timeline of the release of different versions of Python programming language.
The Python interpreter is usually installed as ‘/usr/bin/python’ or ‘/usr/local/bin/python’ on those machines where it is available; putting the appropriate directory in your Unix shell’s search path makes it possible to start it by typing the command
to the shell. Since the choice of the directory where the interpreter lives is an installation option, other places are possible; check with your local Python guru or system administrator. (E.g., ‘/usr/local/python’ is a popular alternative location.) Typing an end-of-file character (Control-D on Unix, Control-Z on DOS or Windows) at the primary prompt causes the interpreter to exit with a zero exit status. If that doesn’t work, you can exit the interpreter by typing the following commands: ‘import sys; sys.exit()’.
The interpreter’s line-editing features usually aren’t very sophisticated. On Unix, whoever installed the interpreter may have enabled support for the GNU readline library, which adds more elaborate interactive editing and history features. Perhaps the quickest check to see whether commandline editing is supported is typing Control-P to the first Python prompt you get. If it beeps, you have command-line editing; see Appendix A for an introduction to the keys. If nothing appears to happen, or if ^P is echoed, command-line editing isn’t available; you’ll only be able to use backspace to remove characters from the current line. The interpreter operates somewhat like the Unix shell: when called with standard input connected to a tty device, it reads and executes commands interactively; when called with a file name argument or with a file as standard input, it reads and executes a script from that file. A third way of starting the interpreter is ‘python -c command [arg] …’, which executes the statement(s) in command, analogous to the shell’s -c option. Since Python statements often contain spaces or other characters that are special to the shell, it is best to quote command in its entirety with double quotes.
Web and Internet Development
Python lets you develop a web application without too much trouble. It has libraries for internet protocols like HTML and XML, JSON, e-mail processing, FTP, IMAP, and easy-to-use socket interface. Yet, the package index has more libraries:
- Requests – An HTTP client library
- BeautifulSoup – An HTML parser
- Feedparser – For parsing RSS/Atom feeds
- Paramiko – For implementing the SSH2 protocol
- Twisted Python – For asynchronous network programming
We also have a gamut of frameworks available. Some of these are- Django, Pyramid. We also get microframeworks like flask and bottle.
Applications of Python Programming in Desktop GUI
Most binary distributions of Python ship with Tk, a standard GUI library. It lets you draft a user interface for an application. Apart from that, some toolkits are available:
- Kivy – for writing multitouch applications
- Qt via pyqt or pyside
And then we have some platform-specific toolkits:
- Microsoft Foundation Classes through the win32 extensions
Science and Numeric Applications
This is one of the very common applications of python programming. With its power, it comes as no surprise that python finds its place in the scientific community. For this, we have:
- SciPy – A collection of packages for mathematics, science, and engineering.
- Pandas- A data-analysis and -modeling library
- IPython – A powerful shell for easy editing and recording of work sessions. It also supports visualizations and parallel computing.
- Software Carpentry Course – It teaches basic skills for scientific computing and running bootcamps. It also provides open-access teaching materials.
- Also, NumPy lets us deal with complex numerical calculations.
Software Development Application
Software developers make use of python as a support language. They use it for build-control and management, testing, and for a lot of other things:
- SCons – for build-control
- Buildbot, Apache Gump – for automated and continuous compilation and testing
- Roundup, Trac – for project management and bug-tracking.
- Roster of Integrated Development Environments
Python Applications in Education
Thanks to its simplicity, brevity, and large community, Python makes for a great introductory programming language. Applications of python programming in education has huge scope as it is a great language to teach in schools or even learn on your own.
If you still haven’t begun, we suggest you read up on what we have to say about the white and grey hat. Also, check out python page in our side.
Python Applications in Business
Python is also a great choice to develop ERP and e-commerce systems:
- Tryton – A three-tier, high-level general-purpose application platform.
- Odoo – A management software with a range of business applications. With that, it’s an all-rounder and forms a complete suite of enterprise-management applications in-effect.
With Python, you have:
- Custom and ODBC interfaces to MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, MS SQL Server, and others. These are freely available for download.
- Object databases like Durus and ZODB
- Standard Database API
With all those possibilities, how would Python slack in network programming? It does provide support for lower-level network programming:
- Twisted Python – A framework for asynchronous network programming. We mentioned it in section 2.
- An easy-to-use socket interface
Games and 3D Graphics
Safe to say, this one is the most interesting. When people hear someone say they’re learning Python, the first thing they get asked is – ‘So, did you make a game yet?’
PyGame, PyKyra are two frameworks for game-development with Python. Apart from these, we also get a variety of 3D-rendering libraries.
If you’re one of those game-developers, you can check out PyWeek, a semi-annual game programming contest.
Other Python Applications
These are some of the major Python Applications. Apart from what we just discussed, it still finds use in more places:
- Console-based Applications
- Audio – or Video- based Applications
- Applications for Images
- Enterprise Applications
- 3D CAD Applications
- Computer Vision (Facilities like face-detection and color-detection)
- Machine Learning
- Web Scraping (Harvesting data from websites)
- Artificial Intilligency
- Data Analysis (The Hottest of Python Applications)
Jobs In Python
Jobs In Python it’s a vast opportunity now every company wants to do programming with python.The 21st century; oh, what a time to be alive! With the world at your fingertips, it is easier than ever to dream big. But the question is- where to begin? With a wide range of programming languages to choose from to begin with, this article isn’t a gimmick for Python. Through this piece of writing, we hope to open you up to the realities of the world of Python. We will let you know the reasons why should I learn Python programming, what are the benefits of learning Python, what can I do with Python programming language and how can I start a career in Python Programming. Even though it is a very easy language to begin with, Python opens a lot of doors for you. In the professional world, Python and Ruby developers earn the second highest grub, next to Swift. In India, the average package of a Python developer with around 4 years of experience is approximately 5 lacs per annum. Python also finds use in cyber security. This is why Python is worth learning.
Python is literally everywhere, be it a startup or a unicorn. From conciseness to capability, its perfect blend of uniqueness and flexibility make it a suitable choice for any project. It gets the best of both worlds. Giants like Google, Disney, and NASA are always on the lookout for talented Python professionals. I hope now you will not wonder why should you learn Python and start learning it.
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This section gave an overview of the Python programming language, including:
- A brief history of the development of Python
- Some points on Python Interpreter
- Various application on python
Python is a great option, whether you are a beginning programmer looking to learn the basics, an experienced programmer designing a large application, or anywhere in between. The basics of Python are easily grasped, and yet its capabilities are vast.
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